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General Ontology
Cosmos and Nomos

Theory of Ontological Layers and Complexity Layers

Part XXIX (Sequel-9)

Crystals and Organisms

Theory of intrinsic Shape, intrinsic Symmetry and Promorph

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Sequel-9 to the Summary and Evaluation (of the documents XVI -- XXVIII concerning the promorphology of complex-shaped two-dimensional crystals).

This document (Part XXIX Sequel-9) continues the investigation of snow crystals.

Sequel to the Significance of Snow-Crystal Growth for the General Holistic Ontological Theory

In what follows we will study the different types of snow crystals and their many morphological versions.
To begin with we show some drawings (not photographs) of snow crystals :

Figure above :  Some examples of snow crystals.
(In WOLTERECK, 1932, After HELLMANN, 1893.)
Click HERE for high-quality image

Figure above :  Snow crystals. The upper two images (left) are star-shaped crystals. The other three are double-stars. They consist of a hexagonal prism of which the top and bottom ends are capped with hexagonal stars.

(In WOLTERECK, 1932, After HELLMANN, 1893.)
Click HERE for high-quality image

For another drawing of snow crystals, this time taken from HAECKEL, E., Kristallseelen, 1917, click HERE .
Comment on this Figure : 
Plate-like and columnar snow crystals. In some snow crystals these are combined, resulting in forms that reminds one of cuff links (image 6, 7 and 15).
Under the columnar forms we have regularly six-fold prisms (with developed edges) as in image 16, but also cylinders with rounded-off edges as in image 17.
Often there are fine radial channels present in the branches of snow stars (especially in frost), filled with air, less commonly, with water (HAECKEL, 1917), see image 19.
If one breaks a snow crystal, the fragments separate according to the cleaving planes. See image 18a, 18b.

The next Figures depict snow crystals from yet another source, namely from LACHAPELLE, E., Field Guide to Snow Crystals, 1969, 1991.

Figure above :  Stellar snow crystals combined to form a snowflake (partly shown) (appr. 40x).
( To see such dark pictures better, one should increase the brightness of the monitor if necessary)  (After LACHAPELLE, 1969.)

Figure above :  Stellar snow crystal with a trace of rime (appr. 43x).
(After LACHAPELLE, 1969.)

Figure above :  'Bullets', bullets with plates, and assorted clusters (appr. 33x). These crystals had already been on the ground for 36 hours when this photograph was taken. Equitemperature metamorphism has already started to alter the original shapes, but they can still be recognized. This alteration is noticeably stronger on the features resembling branches of stars or dendrites, which have already become rounded and smooth (not by melting, but by the mentioned metamorphism), while the columns and bullets are little changed. The more intricate shapes are less stable and hence tend to metamorphose more rapidly.
(After LACHAPELLE, 1969, p.44 and 46.)

Figure above :  Column with dendrites (appr. 80x).
(After LACHAPELLE, 1969.)

Will be continued .  .  . 

In the next document we will work out the Theory of Organic Lattices, as was anticipated as a preliminary conclusion resulting from considerations of the form potential of non-equilibrium crystal growth.

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To continue click HERE for further study of the Theory of Layers, Part XXIX Sequel-10, Theory of Organic Lattices.

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