Stereometric Basic forms of the six Individuality Orders

Basic Forms of Organs

P r o m o r p h s  o f  s e c o n d - o r d e r  f o r m  i n d i v i d u a l s

REMARK : When we, in the course of the ensuing discussions, quote a certain promorph (= stereometric basic form or promorphological category), we will set it as a LINK. This link will bring the reader to the relevant place within the Promorphological System, so that he or she can orient him- or herself as to where that category is situated within the System.

The organs or workparts, in the purely morphological sense, as they were as second-order form individuals established above ( 2nd-order individuals, Organs ), in promorphological respect directly follow upon the cells, by reason of the almost unlimited diversity of their forms, in which almost all possible stereometric basic forms can be found, as also by reason of the predominance of the lower and simple promorphs especially of the Anaxonia. But in addition to these, in the more perfect organs also higher basic forms occur, as for instance the highest of all, the dipleural form, which is the general basic form of the plant leaves and the extremities of animals.
The extraordinary diversity of the basic form can, in the case of organs (as also in the case of cells), be explained by the fact that the adaptive relationships of this morphological individuality are absolutely diverse, and that there is no limit as to the development of the organs (as also the cells) into the most different directions. Moreover the complicated composition of the higher organs out of complexes of lower organs, the utmost complex entanglement of cell fusions (cytocormi), homoplastic organs, heteroplastic organs, organ systems and organ apparatus, can bring about every basic form.

The majority of animal organs perhaps belongs, like the majority of cells, to the amorphous basic form of the Anaxonia ( Anaxonia acentra ). Next the lower Polyaxonia and especially the Monaxonia are wide-spread. The homopolar as well as the heteropolar Monaxonia form the promorph of many organs. But also the Stauraxonia, the homopolar bipyramids as well as the heteropolar single pyramids, are often very clearly expressed in many organs within the several phyla of all three kingdoms (animals, plants and protists). Generally there is not much to say about the predominance of certain promorphs in certain organs, because the differences of adaptational conditions and in virtue of that the modified promorphs, are generally too diverse. We can only note that the lateral complex organs (the leaves of plants, the extremities of animals) show a predominance of dipleural forms, and that in plant leaves we mainly see Eudipleura , while in animal extremities we mainly see Dysdipleura. With respect to organ complexes, such as organ systems and organ apparatus, we can say that their promorph often is determined by the promorph of the whole body.
Organs, that develop freely on body surfaces, most often show clearly expressed monaxonic forms, like for instance hairs, spines (thorns). Often, however, also clearly expressed eudipleural forms occur in these cases, like feathers and scales. And those organs which we, above, had signified as paramers, and which correspond to antimers in virtue of their lying next to each other, are similar to the latter with respect to their promorph, which is in all cases a single pyramid, and most often a three-fold pyramid. Normally this pyramid is unequally three-folded (Dysdipleura), more seldom isosceles (Eudipleura). Dysdipleural are, for instance, both paramers of which every eudipleural plant leaf, is constituted. Eudipleural on the other hand, are the toes or fingers (which are paramers) of vertebrates.
Like the paramers correspond in their promorph to the antimers, those organs which we, above, have indicated as epimers, and which correspond to metamers in virtue of their sequentional positioning, normally show the promorph of the latter, namely mostly either the homostauric or heterostauric promorph (regular or irregular pyramid).

To continue click HERE for the Basic Forms of Antimers

e-mail : 

back to homepage

back to retrospect and continuation page

back to Internal Structure of 3-D Crystals

back to The Shapes of 3-D Crystals

back to The Thermodynamics of Crystals

back to Tectology

back to Introduction to Promorphology

back to Anaxonia, Homaxonia, Polyaxonia

back to Protaxonia : Monaxonia

back to Stauraxonia homopola

back to Stauraxonia heteropola

back to Homostaura anisopola, Heterostaura

back to Autopola oxystaura and orthostaura

back to Allopola (introduction)

back to Allopola amphipleura and zygopleura

back to Spiraxonia

back to Spiraxonia allogonia

back to Spiraxonia isogonia

back to the Basic Forms of Cells I

back to the Basic Forms of Cells II